Preparing to teach a workshop on Energy, I ran across a paper from the Jovian Energy Research Corporation out of the University of Colorado at Boulder, investigating indirect uses of Casimir cavities as a means to indirectly extract zero-point energy (coined as “Nullpunktsenergie” in Einstein and Stern’s 1913 publication). It is now known through an extension of quantum field theory and exhibited in the nature of Helium (He), which will not become a matter solid even at absolute zero due to the zero point energy in its sub-atomic makeup.
In reviewing current research into fundamental quantum states, I encountered a proof of the combination of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and lattice gauge theory, termed “Lattice QCD.” In this, the concept of empty space as a quantum foam of virtual particle/anti-particle pairs was presented using the Feynman diagram for vacuum fluctuations:
This illustration is typically more oriented with the spontaneous creation of the paired virtual particle/antiparticle and eventual mutual annihilation at the point both particle and antiparticle merge to return the energy wave originally present before the emergence of the pair. The more orbital-like presentation in this illustration reminded me of an earlier study.
This follows research I once conducted regarding orientation and rotations along additional dimensions, which also factored in the propagation of photos in a vacuum. A single particle rotating along an additional orientation at right angles to the path of temporal progression would exhibit this same behavior – emerging as a forward-propagating Bradyonic particle paired with an opposed-propagating particle of the same type, only revealing characteristics across a negative measure of time (Tachyonic), existing briefly before combining and yielding back the original energy state. Approached from either spaciotemporal orientation, the same emergence of paired particles and annihilation of the pair would appear to an external observer. The differentiation between particle (example: electron) and antiparticle (example: positron) is identified by the relative charge exhibited in a known field. The electron with its negative charge moved towards a plate of positive charge, and away from a plate of negative charge, while its rotation in an EM field can be measured for the mass and absolute charge of the electron. Reversing this behavior across a negative measure of time (as in the case of a Tachyonic particle travelling with a relative velocity above C) causes the move away from and towards plates to appear reversed to the same observer’s order or temporal progression. Mathematical exploration of the virtual particle/antiparticle pairs make determinations of orientation purely subjective, which aligns with the pair mirroring of the same particle during rotation along both orientations of temporal propagation.
As the term of existence is so short between emergence and annihilation or its inverse, the “virtual particles” expressed in this state lack the normal measures of mass and mass-transport (Higgs) bosons which is a known quality of the quantum field. This also provides a much simpler cause for the existence of matching particles and antiparticles while retaining qualities of Isospin of the Standard Model. This also allows for oriented fermions of equal-but-opposing qualities without exotic anti-equivalents for all subatomic elements, while mesons of closely-bound particle and antiparticle pairs have exceptionally short stable periods before decay. Conservation of the Pauli exclusion principle further supports the existence of photons as massless and constrained to travel at C in a vacuum and so across an undetermined subjective duration between emission and absorption in an observational framework.
Considering the relative motion of all energy and proto-material during the initial formation of the universe, each point will essentially move apart from the others with combined velocity exceeding C, which would have resulted in gravity’s attraction across a subject negative measure of time yielding a repulsive force until local proximity’s attractive drag could override increasingly-remote repulsive expansion. With a similar initial distribution along spatiotemporal dimension, this period of expansion would have continued until fairly closely aligned cessation and continuity at a more sedate pace, with only the echoes of energy and its derivatives along the opposed paths of propagation remaining as evidence of this event sequence. This is further confirmed by calculation of early expansion and later cosmological background heat mapping of the absent portion of energy and matter from the opposing temporal orientation.